Wall and floor tiles are one of the most sought after materials. Most often it is used for finishing the kitchen, street, bathroom, toilet, loggia and even in the bath. The advantages of tiles include strength, durability, wear resistance, moisture resistance, as well as external attractiveness. Despite the significant advantages of the material, when laying it requires waterproofing under the tile. The tile does not let moisture through, but at the joints of the tiles there are problem areas through which moisture can penetrate into the floor or into the room under it when it is flooded. There are several methods of waterproofing under the tile, each of which has several advantages and disadvantages.
Selection of materials for work
Waterproofing a tile floor requires the use of the most durable and waterproof materials. Conventionally, they can be divided into two types - roll films and materials on a bitumen basis.
Surface preparation before waterproofing
It would be a mistake to assume that waterproofing a bathroom under a tile does not require high-quality and thorough surface preparation. If you do not properly prepare the base, waterproofing will quickly lose its strength and basic functions.
The main stage of surface preparation is the alignment of the floor and walls in the bathroom or other rooms. The substrate must also be clean; therefore, dust, paint residues or glue must be removed from the surface. For cleaning the surface should use gentle detergents. After that, the surface must be polished. To get rid of traces of grinding the surface, you need to remove dust with a vacuum cleaner. If the surface of the walls or the floor remained deep bumps, they need to wipe.
The final stage of the preparatory work is the primer surface. To do this, use any type of primer of deep penetration, but the best option would be a moisture resistant primer, used in conditions of high humidity. A layer of such a primer will not only provide better adhesion of waterproofing to the surface, but also fill in small cracks and provide additional protection from moisture.
General rules for waterproofing tiles
Waterproofing a bathroom floor under a tile is a fairly simple procedure. However, its high-quality implementation requires compliance with certain rules:
- When performing waterproofing works, it is necessary to cover with a protective material not only the floor, but also walls to a height of about 20 cm. This will ensure the maximum level of waterproofing, creating a kind of trough in the room through which moisture cannot pass.
- In addition to the floor and walls, you need to conduct high-quality waterproofing and other important areas. These include a shower in the bathroom, the area around the sink, and the sections where the pipes go. This applies to laying tiles in the bathroom. If you need a waterproofing balcony, on the street or in the bath, then the areas that need the most high-quality processing, others. In this case, it is recommended to use special sealants and hydraulic cord.
- It is recommended to perform waterproofing under the tile using the same material, but in some cases you can use several types of sealant.
After arranging the waterproofing it is necessary to make a concrete tie. And only after that you can carry out waterproofing of the floor. If you choose waterproofing waterproofing, screed required, but in other cases - desirable.
When choosing what is better to use as a waterproofing under the tile, you should consider all the options of materials. This will help to make an informed decision, depending on the type of room and surface features.
Pasting waterproofing is carried out using sheets of special material that overlap each other, and then fixed with a gas torch or adhesive mastic.
The most popular waterproofing materials for waterproofing are bitumen, tar and roofing felt. However, in modern construction most often is used bridgeplast, isol, brizol or ecoflex.
With the help of this method, waterproofing of a wooden house, a porch, an open balcony, a bathroom and practically any premises is performed. To make a good waterproofing, the work should be carried out carefully, following certain rules:
- The base must be cleaned and primed with bitumen mastic.
- Sheets waterproofing lay overlap, pre-applied mastic on the edges of the sheet. The best option is to lay the material in two layers. This is especially important if you are waterproofing a pool under a tile or laying tile on the street or in a bath.
- After completion of waterproofing works, a concrete screed is recommended.
If waterproofing of a wooden floor under a tile is required, you should not forget about careful treatment of the threshold and parts of the neighboring room.
Abrasive waterproofing is to coat the floor and walls with waterproof material. It is applied in several layers. The advantage of this method is the ability to work on uneven or wet floors. In addition, even a master without special training and experience can perform work.
Liquid waterproofing is performed with bitumen or bitumen-rubber compounds, as well as polyurethane, cement-polymer and bitumen-polymer mixtures. Bituminous mixtures have an unpleasant smell, so they are not recommended for waterproofing the floor in the shower. In this case, it is better to use cement-polymer mixtures and other synthetic materials.
The order of performance of work:
- Clean and moisten the floor. Apply mastic to capture not only the floor, but also the walls. After the material dries, it is necessary to glue the corners with self-adhesive waterproof tape. If the tape does not have an adhesive base, you can attach it to a wet mastic.
- Using a spatula or paint roller, apply two or three layers of mastic, paying particular attention to the corners. At the same time to apply each subsequent layer it is necessary perpendicular to the previous. The gap between the application of layers depends on the type of material. For some mastic must pass the day. But most often, the material should be applied at the moment when the previous layer has hardened, but not completely dried.
- If bituminous mastic is used, a screed is required after its application. When using polymeric compositions it is optional.
If you need to waterproof the wooden floor in the bathroom, on the street, in the bath or other places with a very high level of humidity, you can use several materials. Hybrid waterproofing provides a high level of protection against moisture, durability and durability of the coating. This option is most often chosen under the self-leveling floor.
Concrete structures, despite the powerful and durable appearance, have microcracks, through which the moisture leaks. To improve the properties of concrete, special liquid compositions are used, which penetrate into the material and harden. Such compositions include rubber-concrete emulsion or special dry compound, which must be pre-diluted.
Stages of work:
- The surface should be pre-cleaned of dirt, glue and dust. Then apply a moisture resistant primer on it. In the bath or in the bathroom the floor may be damaged by a fungus. In this case, these areas should be further treated with a special antifungal compound.
- Apply the waterproofing mixture to the floor and part of the wall with a roller or a wide brush. The emulsion must be applied in a layer of 5-10 mm. Some formulations can be applied using a spray bottle.
If waterproofing of the porch, balcony or bathroom with penetrating waterproofing is required, the order of work is somewhat different:
- Along the perimeter of the room it is necessary to make a small depression that needs to be cleaned and moistened.
- Prime the gutter with a liquid material, then fill it with a suture component.
- Prime the entire floor as well as the wall section. After a few hours, apply another layer of material.
Within three days, such a base should be moistened, and laying tiles on it can be carried out only after three weeks.
When preparing the base for a tile for a bathroom, on a balcony, in a kitchen or other rooms with high humidity, you can use various waterproofing materials, but which ones are better to choose:
- For a bathroom or kitchen, where the humidity level is not very high, you can use waterproofing waterproofing.
- If the house is built of concrete blocks, it is better to use penetrating insulation in the rooms. It not only guarantees a high level of protection against moisture, but also creates a more durable and reliable base.
- For the system "warm floor" should be pasting bitumen-polymer or cement coating polymer-waterproofing.
Regardless of the base of the floor - wood, concrete or cement, before laying the tile should be put a layer of waterproofing material. This will reliably protect against moisture penetration.